46 oral cancer patients were tested for Gcprotein.22% had greatly reduced gcprotein, 61% was moderately reduced, 17% were equivalent to healthy controls.Patients with low gcprotein had high nagalase.Those with high Gcprotein had low nagalase.Thus there is an inverse relationship.Surgical removal of tumours results in a subtle decrease in nagalase.Tests in mice show that nagalase is directly proportional to tumour burden.Hence it could be used as a diagnostic
Vitamin D3-binding protein (Gc protein), a serum glycoprotein, is the precursor for the macrophage activating factor.
Cancer patient sera contain alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase that deglycosylates Gc protein. Deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to macrophage activating factor, leading to immunosuppression.
Of 46 oral cancer patients with squamous cell carcinoma, approximately 22% had greatly reduced precursor activities. The precursor activity of approximately 61% of these patients was moderately reduced. The remaining patients (17%) had precursor activities equivalent to those of healthy humans. Patients with low precursor activity of serum Gc protein had high serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity.
In contrast, patients with high precursor activity had low serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity.
Thus, levels of serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase of individual patients have an inverse correlation with precursor activities of their serum Gc protein. Surgical removal of tumors resulted in a subtle decrease in serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity with concomitant increase in the precursor activity of serum Gc protein. Serum enzyme analysis of nude mice transplanted with a human oral squamous carcinoma cell line revealed that serum alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity is directly proportional to tumor burden. Thus, alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in patient bloodstream can serve as a diagnostic/prognostic index.